Discussion 250 Words. Make Sure You Provide 2 References And Utilize APA Seven .Intrucction Attached Nursing homework help

Discussion Topic

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 Topic 1 Breast cancer

Explore the models for Community and Health Promotion using the recommended academic resources:

· Ecological models

· The health belief model

· Stages of change model (trans-theoretical model)

· Social cognitive Theory

· Theory of reasoned action/planned behavior


1. After studying those models select one that you consider could be used as framework for a health promotion initiative of your interest to improve the indicators of your main health problem, selected in week 1. Why is this model suitable as health promotion framework for your health problem? Discuss your selection including strengths and potential barriers to implement a health promotion strategy that you may wish to articulate in your community or group of interest.

Topic 2. Lung Cancer

Of the non-selected models to improve the indicators of the chosen health problem debate about one that you believe is not applicable to the potential goal of your health promotion initiative. Explain why you arrived to such conclusion, including potential barriers and challenges for its articulation.

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Breast Cancer

 Topic 1 Breast cancer

The major objective of the Healthy People initiative on breast cancer prevention is to improve screening, open community-based cancer control, and personalized treatments to reduce deaths. Breast is the second most common cancer among women after cervical cancer. According to Alexander et al. (2019), the disease impacts women’s social and psychological well-being and their immediate families. This topic is important because this type of cancer remains higher among various ethnic/racial groups in the US. Therefore, through the numerous programs provided by the Healthy People initiative, early detection, mainly through screening, helps identify the disease early when it can be treated. In some parts of the US, awareness among communities is poor, mainly among the minority groups; thus, awareness is likely to improve screening and encourage health-seeking behaviors among those affected.

Breast cancer screening plays a key role in the Healthy People initiative fight against the disease; providing women with behavior modification techniques has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease (Kolak et al., 2017). Although breast cancer screening helps health workers identify the disease early, there are potential complications such as overdiagnosis. Studies show that some early invasive cancers do not need to be exposed to treatment because they are not harmful. Therefore, when a woman is overdiagnosed and treatment is carried out, they are over-treated, which may expose them to unnecessary side effects. The main criteria used to understand breast cancer complications is isolating the harmful cancer cells from those not harmful. When the diagnosis is effective, healthcare providers can identify patients who need treatment and those that do not need to avoid the incidences of overdiagnosing and over-treating women with breast cancer.




Alexander, A., Kaluve, R., Prabhu, J. S., Korlimarla, A., Srinath, B. S., Manjunath, S., … & Sridhar, T. S. (2019). The impact of breast cancer on the patient and the family in Indian perspective. Indian journal of palliative care, 25(1), 66. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2FIJPC.IJPC_158_18

Kolak, A., Kamińska, M., Sygit, K., Budny, A., Surdyka, D., Kukiełka-Budny, B., & Burdan, F. (2017). Primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. Ann Agric Environ Med, 24(4), 549-553. https://doi.org/10.26444/aaem/75943

Topic 2. Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer

          Lung cancer is a type of cancer that affects the lungs. This type of cancer is mostly associated with various causes such as smoking, family history, exposure to pollutants, and second-hand smoke. The symptoms of lung cancer are blood in cough, weight loss, wheezing, and chest pain. In 2018, 234,030 people in the United States were diagnosed with lung cancer (de Groot et al., 2018). Lung cancer is the third most prevalent type of cancer behind breast cancer and prostate cancer (de Groot et al., 2018). 

          It is important to study lung cancer as it is a major cause of death among racial minorities, such as non-Hispanic blacks. Lung cancer accounts for about 25% of all cancer deaths annually in the United States (de Groot et al., 2018). Since this type of cancer is preventable through lifestyle modifications, enhancing the knowledge about the prevention of the disease can help improve the health of the population.

          The secondary complications associated with lung cancer include pleural effusion, which occurs due to fluid accumulation around the lungs, resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath. The fluid build may affect the functioning of the lungs, and also increase the risk of pneumonia. Other complications may include lung metastases, where cancer spreads to other organs, such as the liver (Uhlig et al., 2019).

          The risk of developing other complications is determined by a lung cancer diagnosis, including the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed. Cancer screening plays an important role in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Non-compliance with treatment can increase the risk of secondary complications, which can be prevented through effective treatment. Treatment controls the severity of the symptoms and the progression of the disease, which reduces the risk of secondary complications.



de Groot, P. M., Wu, C. C., Carter, B. W., & Munden, R. F. (2018). The epidemiology of lung cancer. Translational Lung Cancer Research, 7(3), 220–233. https://doi.org/10.21037/tlcr.2018.05.06

Uhlig, J., Case, M. D., Blasberg, J. D., Boffa, D. J., Chiang, A., Gettinger, S. N., & Kim, H. S. (2019). Comparison of survival rates after a combination of local treatment and systemic therapy vs systemic therapy alone for treatment of stage IV non–small cell lung cancer. JAMA Network Open, 2(8), e199702-e199702. https://doi.org//10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9702

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