Error Analysis Case Study You will write a current APA-formatted report responding to each of the case study prompts listed below. Your paper must be at le

You will write a current APA-formatted report responding to each of the case study prompts listed below. Your paper must be at least 1,200 words, and it must include proper headings and subheadings that are aligned with the grading rubric domains. 

Access the Iris Center Case Study Unit: Identifying and Addressing Student Errors from the Module 5 Learn material. Read through the Case Study Unit, including all scenarios and the STAR (Strategies and Resources) Sheet.

Case Study Level A, Case 1 – Dalton (p. 3) 

Student: Dalton

  • Read Dalton’s scenario.
  • Read the possible strategies and resources (STAR Sheets pp. 13-29) listed for Identifying and Addressing Student Errors.
    • What type(s) of errors is evident
    • How might you determine the reason students make this kind of error and what are some other examples of these types of errors?
    • What strategies might you employ while addressing these error patterns? 
  • Write a detailed summary of each strategy, including its purpose. 
  • Describe why each strategy might be used to help Dalton improve.

Case Study Level A, Case 2 – Madison (p. 5) 

Student: Madison

  • Read Madison’s scenario.
  • Read the possible strategies and resources (STAR Sheets pp. 13-29) listed for Identifying and Addressing Student Errors.
    • What type(s) of errors is evident
    • How might you determine the reason students make this kind of error and what are some other examples of these types of errors?
    • What strategies might you employ while addressing these error patterns? 
  • Write a detailed summary of each strategy, including its purpose. 
  • Describe why each strategy might be used to help Madison improve.

Case Study Level B, Case 2 – Elias (p. 9) 

Student: Elias

  • Read Elias’ scenario.
  • Read the possible strategies and resources (STAR Sheets pp. 13-29) listed for Identifying and Addressing Student Errors.
    • What type(s) of errors is evident
    • How might you determine the reason students make this kind of error and what are some other examples of these types of errors?
    • What strategies might you employ while addressing these error patterns? 
  • Write a detailed summary of each strategy, including its purpose. 
  • Describe why each strategy might be used to help Elias improve.

Case Study Level C, Case 1 – Wyatt (p. 11) 

Student: Wyatt

  • Read Wyatt’s scenario.
  • Read the possible strategies and resources (STAR Sheets pp. 13-29) listed for Identifying and Addressing Student Errors.
    • What type(s) of errors is evident
    • How might you determine the reason students make this kind of error and what are some other examples of these types of errors?
    • What strategies might you employ while addressing these error patterns? 
  • Write a detailed summary of each strategy, including its purpose. 
  • Describe why each strategy might be used to help Wyatt improve.

In addition, your assignment must include the following: 

  • The case study must include a title and reference page formatted to current APA standards. There is no minimum number of references required.
  • Each case study must be properly identified with corresponding headings.
  • The case study must include professional, positive language.

052621

iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu or iriscenter.com

Serving: Higher Education Faculty • PD Providers • Practicing Educators
Supporting the preparation of effective educators to improve outcomes for all students, especially struggling learners and those with disabilities

CASE STUDY UNIT

Mathematics:
Identifying and Addressing

Student Errors

Created by Janice Brown, PhD, Vanderbilt UniversityKim Skow, MEd, Vanderbilt University

iiris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu

The contents of this resource were developed under a grant from
the U.S. Department of Education, #H325E120002. However,
those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S.
Department of Education, and you should not assume endorse-
ment by the Federal Government. Project Officer, Sarah Allen

Mathematics:
Identifying and Addressing Student Errors

Contents: Page

Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii
Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
STAR Sheets

Collecting Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Identifying Error Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Word Problems: Additional Error Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Determining Reasons for Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Addressing Error Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Case Studies
Level A, Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Level A, Case 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Level B, Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Level B, Case 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Level C, Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

TABLE OF CONTENTS

* For an Answer Key to this case study, please email your full name, title, and institutional
affiliation to the IRIS Center at iris@vanderbilt .edu .

ii
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu ii

To Cite This
Case Study Unit

Brown J ., Skow K ., & the IRIS Center . (2016) . Mathematics:
Identifying and addressing student errors. Retrieved from http://
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu/case_studies/ics_matherr .pdf

Content
Contributors

Janice Brown
Kim Skow

Case Study
Developers

Janice Brown
Kim Skow

Editor Jason Miller

Reviewers

Diane Pedrotty Bryant
David Chard
Kimberly Paulsen
Sarah Powell
Paul Riccomini

Graphics Brenda KnightPage 27- Geoboard Credit: Kyle Trevethan

Mathematics:
Identifying and Addressing Student Errors

CREDITS

iii
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu iii

Mathematics:
Identifying and Addressing Student Errors

STANDARDS

Licensure and Content Standards
This IRIS Case Study aligns with the following licensure and program standards and topic areas .

Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP)
CAEP standards for the accreditation of educators are designed to improve the quality and
effectiveness not only of new instructional practitioners but also the evidence-base used to assess those
qualities in the classroom .

• Standard 1: Content and Pedagogical Knowledge

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
CEC standards encompass a wide range of ethics, standards, and practices created to help guide
those who have taken on the crucial role of educating students with disabilities .

• Standard 1: Learner Development and Individual Learning Differences

Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC)
InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards are designed to help teachers of all grade levels and content
areas to prepare their students either for college or for employment following graduation .

• Standard 6: Assessment
• Standard 7: Planning for Instruction

National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
NCATE standards are intended to serve as professional guidelines for educators . They also overview
the “organizational structures, policies, and procedures” necessary to support them

• Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions

iv
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu iv

Error analysis is a type of diagnostic assessment that can help a teacher determine what types
of errors a student is making and why . More specifically, it is the process of identifying and
reviewing a student’s errors to determine whether an error pattern exists—that is, whether a
student is making the same type of error consistently . If a pattern does exist, the teacher can
identify a student’s misconceptions or skill deficits and subsequently design and implement
instruction to address that student’s specific needs .
Research on error analysis is not new: Researchers around the world have been conducting
studies on this topic for decades . Error analysis has been shown to be an effective method for
identifying patterns of mathematical errors for any student, with or without disabilities, who is
struggling in mathematics .

Steps for Conducting an Error Analysis
An error analysis consists of the following steps:
Step 1. Collect data: Ask the student to complete at least 3 to 5 problems of the same type (e .g .,

multi-digit multiplication) .
Step 2. Identify error patterns: Review the student’s solutions, looking for consistent error patterns

(e .g ., errors involving regrouping) .
Step 3. Determine reasons for errors: Find out why the student is making these errors .
Step 4. Use the data to address error patterns: Decide what type of instructional strategy will best

address a student’s skill deficits or misunderstandings .

Benefits of Error AnalysisBenefits of Error Analysis
An error analysis can help a teacher to:

• Identify which steps the student is able to perform correctly (as opposed to simply
marking answers either correct or incorrect, something that might mask what it is that
the student is doing right)

• Determine what type(s) of errors a student is making
• Determine whether an error is a one-time miscalculation or a persistent issue that

indicates an important misunderstanding of a mathematic concept or procedure
• Select an effective instructional approach to address the student’s misconceptions and

to teach the correct concept, strategy, or procedure

Mathematics:
Identifying and Addressing Student Errors

INTRODUCTION

v
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu v

References
Ashlock, R . B . (2010) . Error patterns in computation (10th ed .) . Boston: Allyn & Bacon .
Ben-Zeev, T . (1998) . Rational errors and the mathematical mind . Review of General Psychology,

2(4), 366–383 .
Cox, L . S . (1975) . Systematic errors in the four vertical algorithms in normal and handicapped

populations . Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 6(4), 202–220 .
Idris, S . (2011) . Error patterns in addition and subtraction for fractions among form two students .

Journal of Mathematics Education, 4(2), 35–54 .
Kingsdorf, S ., & Krawec, J . (2014) . Error analysis of mathematical word problem solving across

students with and without learning disabilities . Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(2),
66–74 .

Radatz, H . (1979) . Error analysis in mathematics education . Journal for Research in Mathematics
Education, 10(3), 163–172 .

Riccomini, P . J . (2014) . Identifying and using error patterns to inform instruction for students
struggling in mathematics. Webinar slideshow .

Yetkin, E . (2003) . Student difficulties in learning elementary mathematics . ERIC Clearinghouse for
Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education. Retrieved from http://www .ericdigests .
org/2004-3/learning .html

References for the Following Cases
Ashlock, R . B . (2010) . Error patterns in computation (10th ed .) . Boston: Allyn & Bacon .
Sherman, H . J ., Richardson, L . I ., & Yard, G . J . (2009) . Teaching learners who struggle with

mathematics: Systematic invervention and remediation (2nd ed .) . Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Merrill/Pearson .

Chapin, S . H . (1999) . Middle grades math: Tools for success (course 2): Practice workbook. New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall .


What a STAR Sheet isWhat a STAR Sheet is
A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-
researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit .

1
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 1

Mathematics: Identifying and Addressing Student Errors
Collecting Data

STAR SHEET

About the Strategy
Collecting data involves asking a student to complete a worksheet, test, or progress monitoring
measure containing a number of problems of the same type .

What the Research and Resources Say
• Error analysis data can be collected using formal (e .g ., chapter test, standardized test) or

informal (e .g ., homework, in-class worksheet) measures (Riccomini, 2014) .
• Error analysis is one form of diagnostic assessment . The data collected can help teachers

understand why students are struggling to make progress on certain tasks and align
instruction with the student’s specific needs (National Center on Intensive Intervention, n .d .;
Kingsdorf & Krawec, 2014) .

• To help determine an error pattern, the data collection measure must contain at a minimum
three to five problems of the same type (Special Connections, n .d .) .

Identifying Data Sources
To conduct an error analysis for mathematics, the teacher must first collect data . She can do so by
using a number of materials completed by the student (i .e ., student product) . These include worksheets,
progress monitoring measures, assignments, quizzes, and chapter tests . Homework can also be used,
assuming the teacher is confident that the student completed the assignment independently . Regardless
of the type of student product used, it should contain at a minimum three to five problems of the same
type . This allows a sufficient number of items with which to determine error patterns .

Scoring
To better understand why students are struggling, the teacher should mark each incorrect digit in a
student’s answer, as opposed to simply marking the entire answer incorrect . Evaluating each digit in
the answer allows the teacher to more quickly and clearly identify the student’s error and to determine
whether the student is consistently making this error across a number of problems . For example, take
a moment to examine the worksheet below . By marking the incorrect digits, the teacher can determine
that, although the student seems to understand basic math facts, he is not regrouping the “1” to the
ten’s column in his addition problems .
Note: Marking each incorrect digit might not always reveal the error pattern . Review the STAR Sheets
Identifying Error Patterns, Word Problems: Additional Error Patterns, and Determining Reasons for
Errors to learn about identifying the different types of errors students make .

2
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 2

3
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 3

TipsTips
• Typically, addition, subtraction, and multiplication problems should be

scored from RIGHT to LEFT . By scoring from right to left, the teacher will
be sure to note incorrect digits in the place value columns . However,
division problems should be scored LEFT to RIGHT .

• If the student is not using a traditional algorithm to arrive at a solution,
but instead using a partial algorithm (e .g ., partial sums, partial products)
then addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems should
be scored from LEFT to RIGHT .

References
Kingsdorf, S ., & Krawec, J . (2014) . Error analysis of mathematical word problem solving across

students with and without learning disabilities . Learning Disabilities Research and Practice,
29(2), 66–74 .

National Center on Intensive Intervention . (n .d .) . Informal academic diagnostic assessment:
Using data to guide intensive instruction. Part 3: Miscue and skills analysis . PowerPoint slides .
Retrieved from http://www .intensiveintervention .org/resource/informal-academic-diagnostic-
assessment-using-data-guide-intensive-instruction-part-3

Riccomini, P . J . (2014) . Identifying and using error patterns to inform instruction for students
struggling in mathematics . Webinar series, Region 14 State Support Team .

Special Connections . (n .d .) . Error pattern analysis . Retrieved from http://www .specialconnections .
ku .edu/~specconn/page/instruction/math/pdf/patternanalysis .pdf

The University of Chicago School Mathematics Project . (n .d .) . Learning multiple methods for any
mathematical operation: Algorithms. Retrieved from http://everydaymath .uchicago .edu/about/
why-it-works/multiple-methods/

4
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 4

STAR SHEETSTAR SHEET
Mathematics: Identifying and Addressing Student Errors

Identifying Error Patterns

About the Strategy
Identifying error patterns refers to determining the type(s) of errors made by a student when he or she
is solving mathematical problems .

What the Research and Resources Say
Three to five errors on a particular type of problem constitute an error pattern (Howell, Fox, & Morehead,
1993; Radatz, 1979) .
Typically, student mathematical errors fall into three broad categories: factual, procedural, and conceptual .
Each of these errors is related either to a student’s lack of knowledge or a misunderstanding (Fisher & Frey,
2012; Riccomini, 2014) .
Not every error is the result of a lack of knowledge or skill . Sometimes, a student will make a mistake simply
because he was fatigued or distracted (i .e ., careless errors) (Fisher & Frey, 2012) .
Procedural errors are the most common type of error (Riccomini, 2014) .
Because conceptual and procedural knowledge often overlap, it is difficult to distinguish conceptual errors
from procedural errors (Rittle-Johnson, Siegler, & Alibali, 2001; Riccomini, 2014) .

Types of Errors
1. Factual errors are errors due to a lack of factual information (e .g ., vocabulary, digit identification,

place value identification) .
2. Procedural errors are errors due to the incorrect performance of steps in a mathematical process

(e .g ., regrouping, decimal placement) .
3. Conceptual errors are errors due to misconceptions or a faulty understanding of the underlying

principles and ideas connected to the mathematical problem (e .g ., relationship among numbers,
characteristics, and properties of shapes) .

FYI FYI
Another type of error that a student might make is a careless error . The student fails
to correctly solve a given mathematical problem despite having the necessary skills
or knowledge . This might happen because the student is tired or distracted by activity
elsewhere in the classroom . Although teachers can note the occurrence of such
errors, doing so will do nothing to identify a student’s skill deficits . For many students,
simply pointing out the error is all that is needed to correct it . However, it is important
to note that students with learning disabilities often make careless errors .

5
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 5

Common Factual Errors
Factual errors occur when students lack factual information (e .g ., vocabulary, digit identification,
place value identification) . Review the table below to learn about some of the common factual errors
committed by students .

Factual Error Examples

Has not mastered basic number facts:
The student does not know basic
mathematics facts and makes errors
when adding, subtracting, multiplying,
or dividing single-digit numbers .

3 + 2 = 7 7 − 4 = 2
2 × 3 = 7 8 ÷ 4 = 3

Misidentifies signs 2 × 3 = 5 (The student identifies the multiplication
sign as an addition sign .)
8 ÷ 4 = 4 (The student identifies the division sign
as a minus sign .)

Misidentifies digits The student identifies a 5 as a 2 .

Makes counting errors 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 (The student skips 6 .)

Does not know mathematical terms
(vocabulary)

The student does not understand the meaning of
terms such as numerator, denominator, greatest
common factor, least common multiple, or
circumference .

Does not know mathematical formulas The student does not know the
formula for calculating the area
of a circle .

6
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 6

Procedural Error Examples
Regrouping Errors

Forgetting to regroup: The student forgets to regroup
(carry) when adding, multiplying, or subtracting .

77
+ 54

121

The student added 7 + 4 correctly but didn’t
regroup one group of 10 to the tens column .

123
− 76

53

The student does not regroup one group of 10
from the tens column, but instead subtracted the
number that is less (3) from the greater number
(6) in the ones column .

56
× 2
102

After multiplying 2 × 6, the student fails to
regroup one group of 10 from the tens column .

Regrouping across a zero: When a problem contains one
or more 0’s in the minuend (top number), the student is
unsure of what to do .

304
− 21

323

The student subtracted the 0 from the 2 instead
of regrouping .

Performing incorrect operation: Although able to correctly
identify the signs (e .g ., addition, minus), students often
subtract when they are suppose to add, or vice versa .
However, students might also perform other incorrect
operations, such as multiplying instead of adding .

234
− 45

279

The student added instead of subtracting .

3
+ 2

6

The student multiplied instead of adding .

Fraction Errors
Failure to find common denominator when adding and
subtracting fractions

3 1 4
— + — = —
4 3 7

The student added the
numerators and then the
denominators without finding the
common denominator .

Failure to invert and then multiply when dividing fractions
1 1 2 2

— ÷ 2 = — × — = — = 1
2 2 1 2

The student did not invert the 2
to before multiplying to get the
correct answer of .

Failure to change the denominator in multiplying fractions
2 5 10
— × — = —
8 8 8

The student did not multiply the
denominators to get the correct
answer .

Incorrectly converting a mixed number to an improper
fraction

1 4
1— = —
2 2

To find the numerator, the student
added 2 + 1 + 1 to get 4,
instead of following the correct
procedure ( 2 × 1 + 1 = 3 ) .

Common Procedural Errors
Procedural knowledge is an understanding of what steps or procedures are required to solve a
problem . Procedural errors occur when a student incorrectly applies a rule or an algorithm (i .e ., the
formula or step-by-step procedure for solving a problem) . Review the table below to learn more about
some common procedural errors .

1
4

1
2

7
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 7

Common Conceptual Errors
Conceptual knowledge is an understanding of underlying ideas and principles and a recognition
of when to apply them . It also involves understanding the relationships among ideas and principles .
Conceptual errors occur when a student holds misconceptions or lacks understanding of the underlying
principles and ideas related to a given mathematical problem (e .g ., the relationship between numbers,
the characteristics and properties of shapes) . Examine the table below to learn more about some
common conceptual errors .

Conceptual Error Examples
Misunderstanding of place value:
The student doesn’t understand
place value and records the
answer so that the numbers are
not in the appropriate place
value position .

67
+ 4

17

The student added all the numbers
together ( 6 + 7 + 4 = 17 ), not
understanding the values of the
ones and tens columns .

10
+ 9

91

The student recorded the answer
with the
numbers reversed, disregarding the
appropriate place value position of
the numbers or digits .

Write the following as a
number:

When expressing a number
beyond two digits, the student
does not have a conceptual
understanding of the place value
position .

a) seventy-six
b) nine hundred seventy-

four
c) six thousand, six

hundred twenty-four

Student answer:
a) 76
b) 90074
c) 600060024

Procedural Error cont Examples cont
Decimal Errors

Not aligning decimal points when adding or
subtracting: The student aligns the numbers
without regard to where the decimal is located .

120 .4
+

63 .21
75 .25

The student did not align the decimal
points to show digits in like places . In
this case, .4 and .2 are in the tenths
place and should be aligned .

Not placing decimal in appropriate place when
multiplying or dividing: The student does not
count and add the number of decimal places in
each factor to determine the number of decimal
places in the product .
Note: This could also be a conceptual error
related to place value.

3 .4
× .2

6 .8

As with adding or subtracting, the
student aligns the decimal point in the
product with the decimal points in the
factors . The student did not count and
add the number of decimal places in
each factor to determine the number
of decimal places in the product

8
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 8

Conceptual Error cont . Examples cont .

Overgeneralization: Because of lack
of conceptual understanding, the
student incorrectly applies rules or
knowledge to novel situations .

321

245
124

Regardless of whether the greater
number is in the minuend (top number)
or subtrahend (bottom number),
the student always subtracts the
number that is less from the greater
number, as is done with single-digit
subtraction .

Put the following
fractions in order
from smallest to
largest .

The student puts fractions in the order
, , , because he doesn’t
understand the relation between the
numerator and its denominator; that
is, larger denominators mean smaller
fractional parts .

Overspecialization: Because of lack of
conceptual understanding, the student
develops an overly narrow definition
of a given concept or of when to
apply a rule or algorithm .

Which of the
triangles below are
right triangles?

The student chooses a because she
only associates a right triangle with
those with the same orientation as a .

a)

b)

c) both

Student answer: a

90˚

12
200

1
351

77
486

12
200

1
351

77
486

9
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 9

References
Ashlock, R . B . (2010) . Error patterns in computation (10th ed .) . Boston: Allyn & Bacon .
Ben-Hur, M . (2006) . Concept-rich mathematics instruction . Alexandria, VA: ASCD .
Cohen, L . G ., & Spenciner, L . J . (2007) . Assessment of children and youth with special needs (3rd

ed .) . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson .
Educational Research Newsletter and Webinars . (n .d .) . Students’ common errors in working with

fractions . Retrieved from http://www .ernweb .com/educational-research-articles/students-
common-errors-misconceptions-about-fractions/

El Paso Community College . (2009) . Common mistakes: Decimals. Retrieved from http://www .
epcc .edu/CollegeReadiness/Documents/Decimals_0-40 .pdf

El Paso Community College . (2009) . Common mistakes: Fractions . Retrieved from http://www .
epcc .edu/CollegeReadiness/Documents/Fractions_0-40 .pdf

Fisher, D ., & Frey, N . (2012) . Making time for feedback . Feedback for Learning, 70(1), 42–46 .
Howell, K . W ., Fox, S ., & Morehead, M . K . (1993) . Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and

decision-making. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole .
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics . (2000) . Principles and standards for school

mathematics . Reston, VA: Author .
Riccomini, P . J . (2014) . Identifying and using error patterns to inform instruction for students

struggling in mathematics . Webinar series, Region 14 State Support Team .
Radatz, H . (1979) . Error analysis in mathematics education . Journal for Research in Mathematics

Education, 10(3), 163–172 .
Rittle-Johnson, B ., Siegler, R . S ., & Alibali, M . W . ( 2001) . Developing conceptual understanding

and procedural skill in mathematics: An iterative process . Journal of Educational Psychology,
93(2), 346–362 .

Sherman, H . J ., Richardson, L . I ., & Yard, G . J . (2009) . Teaching learners who struggle with
mathematics: Systematic intervention and remediation (2nd ed .) . Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Merrill/Pearson .

Siegler, R ., Carpenter, T ., Fennell, F ., Geary, D ., Lewis, J ., Okamoto, Y ., Thompson, L ., & Wray, J .
(2010) . Developing effective fractions instruction for kindergarten through 8th grade: A practice
guide (NCEE #2010-4039) . Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and
Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U .S . Department of Education . Retrieved
from http://ies .ed .gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/fractions_pg_093010 .pdf

Special Connections . (n .d .) . Error pattern analysis. Retrieved from http://www .specialconnections .
ku .edu/~specconn/page/instruction/math/pdf/patternanalysis .pdf

Yetkin, E . (2003) . Student difficulties in learning elementary mathematics. ERIC Clearinghouse for
Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education . Retrieved from http://www .ericdigests .
org/2004-3/learning .html

10
iris .peabody .vanderbilt .edu 10

STAR SHEETSTAR SHEET
Mathematics: Identifying and Addressing Student Errors

Word Problems: Additional Error Patterns

About the Strategy
A word problem presents a hypothetical real-world scenario that requires a student to apply
mathematical knowledge and reasoning to reach a solution .

What the Research and Resources Say
• Students consider computational exercises more difficult when they are expressed as word

problems rather than as number senten

Looking for this or a Similar Assignment? Click below to Place your Order