Psychology choose a focus for this review based on the research questions addressed by these studies; write an introductory paragraph describing this foc

  1. choose a focus for this review based on the research questions addressed by these studies;
  2. write an introductory paragraph describing this focus and its importance and relevance;
  3. write a paragraph for each of the three studies describing its relationship to the focus of the review, a description of the study design, and the major finding(s);
  4. write a final paragraph summarizing what a next study could be in order to investigate a related, unanswered question, or to replicate a finding in some way related to the focus you’ve selected.  

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Body Image 12 (2015) 82–88

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Body Image

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / b o d y i m a g e

egative comparisons about one’s appearance mediate the
elationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns

asmine Fardouly ∗, Lenny R. Vartanian
chool of Psychology, UNSW Australia, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia

r t i c l e i n f o

rticle history:
eceived 5 June 2014
eceived in revised form 20 October 2014
ccepted 22 October 2014

eywords:
acebook

a b s t r a c t

Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also
highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Face-
book usage and body image concerns among female university students (N = 227), and tested whether
appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (fam-
ily members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with],
celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage

ocial media
rive for thinness
ody dissatisfaction
ppearance-related social comparison
omparison target group

and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of com-
parisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one’s own appearance
to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook
may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially
to peers) on Facebook.

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction

For young women in Western society, the Internet is the most
ommonly used form of media (Bair, Kelly, Serdar, & Mazzeo,
012; Bell & Dittmar, 2011), and social networking websites,
uch as Facebook, are used more often than any other websites
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013; Tiggemann & Slater, 2013).
iven the popularity of social media, it is important to understand

ts association with young women’s body image concerns. Body dis-
atisfaction has become normative among young women both in
igh school (Bearman, Presnell, Martinez, & Stice, 2006; Ricciardelli
McCabe, 2001) and in university settings (Berg, Frazier, & Sherr,

009; Neighbors & Sobal, 2007). The high prevalence of body dissat-
sfaction among young women is particularly concerning because
ody dissatisfaction is one of the most robust risk and maintenance
actors for eating disorders (Stice, 2002). Sociocultural models of
ating disorders highlight the role of the media in the development
nd maintenance of body image problems (Keery, van den Berg, &

hompson, 2004; van den Berg, Thompson, Obremski-Brandon, &
oovert, 2002), but research connecting the use of social media and
ody image concerns is sparse.

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 2 9385 8758.
E-mail addresses: jasmine.fardouly@unsw.edu.au (J. Fardouly),

.vartanian@unsw.edu.au (L.R. Vartanian).

ttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.10.004
740-1445/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A few recent studies have found that Facebook usage in gen-
eral is associated with appearance concerns. For example, research
with Australian samples found that preadolescent and adolescent
female Facebook users reported greater appearance concerns and
dieting behavior than did non-users (Tiggemann & Slater, 2013,
2014). Similarly, research with female high school students in
the United States found that Facebook users had higher levels of
self-objectification (i.e., placed more value on their appearance
than their competence), and made more appearance comparisons
than did non-users (Meier & Gray, 2014). Beyond simply compar-
ing users and non-users, research has examined the connection
between the amount of time spent on Facebook and appear-
ance concerns. Female primary school and high school students
in Australia who reported spending more time on Facebook were
more dissatisfied with their appearance, internalized the thin ideal
to a greater extent, and had greater drive for thinness (Tiggemann
& Miller, 2010; Tiggemann & Slater, 2013, 2014). Research has also
found that it is greater exposure to photographs on Facebook, rather
than overall Facebook usage, that is associated with greater body
dissatisfaction in female high school students (Meier & Gray, 2014).
The authors of several of these studies on Facebook usage suggested
that appearance comparisons might be the mechanism responsible

for the relationship between Facebook usage and body image con-
cerns (Tiggemann & Miller, 2010; Tiggemann & Slater, 2013, 2014),
but no research has directly investigated the role of appearance
comparisons in this relationship.

/ Bod

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J. Fardouly, L.R. Vartanian

Sociocultural models of body image and disordered eating
ighlight the role of appearance comparisons in the pos-
ible development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction
Fitzsimmons-Craft et al., 2014; Keery et al., 2004; van den Berg
t al., 2002; Vartanian & Dey, 2013). In particular, negative body
mage can result when women make upward appearance compar-
sons, comparing their appearance to someone whom they believe
o be more attractive than themselves (Myers, Ridolfi, Crowther,

Ciesla, 2012; as is the case with many celebrities and fashion
odels, for example; Leahey & Crowther, 2008). The majority of

esearch on appearance comparisons has focused on comparisons
o media images through magazines, television, or music videos
Myers & Crowther, 2009), and exposure to these traditional media
ypes has been found to lead to greater body image concerns in
oung women (Bell, Lawton, & Dittmar, 2007; Groesz, Levine, &
urnen, 2002; Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004; Hargreaves & Tiggemann,

004). Furthermore, research examining exposure to these tradi-
ional media types has found that people’s tendency to compare
heir appearance to the appearance of others accounted for the
elationship between media exposure and women’s body dissat-
sfaction (Tiggemann & McGill, 2004; Tiggemann & Slater, 2004).
hat is, media exposure is linked to body dissatisfaction because
f appearance comparison. Similar processes might be at play in
he context of social media. Given the vast number of images that
re uploaded to Facebook every day (Mayer-Schönberger & Cukier,
013), this platform provides women with regular opportunities to
ake appearance comparisons with others. Furthermore, because

eople tend to present an idealized version of the self on social
edia (Manago, Graham, Greenfield, & Salimkhan, 2008; Zhao,
rasmuck, & Martin, 2008), upward comparisons to other Facebook
sers may be particularly likely.

Another important feature of sociocultural models of body
mage, such as the tripartite influence model (van den Berg et al.,
002), is the emphasis on appearance-related pressures from
ifferent sources, including one’s family, peers, and the media. Sim-

larly, it may be that examining appearance comparisons to women
ithin these different groups (family, peers, models/celebrities)

an play an important role in understanding the development
f body image concerns. Unlike more traditional forms of media
such as magazines and television), which predominantly features
mages of models, celebrities, or other strangers, social media (such
s Facebook) contains images of a variety of different types of indi-
iduals. Facebook generally features known others (or “friends”)
ho vary in relational closeness to the user, including family mem-

ers, close friends, and distant peers (i.e., people the viewer may
now but does not regularly socialize with in person). In addition,
hen using Facebook, people are also exposed to images of mod-

ls and celebrities through advertisements, fan pages, and other
ommercial pages. Despite being exposed to a variety of different
arget groups on Facebook, people mainly use Facebook to interact
ith their peers (Hew, 2011), and having more “friends” on Face-

ook has been associated with greater body image concerns among
emale high school students (Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). There is
lso some evidence to suggest that appearance comparisons to
eers may have a stronger association with body image concerns
han does comparisons to models or celebrities (Carey, Donaghue,

Broderick, 2014), perhaps because the appearance of peers may
e seen as more personally attainable than the appearance of
elebrities. However, these effects have not been consistent in
he literature (Leahey & Crowther, 2008; Ridolfi, Myers, Crowther,

Ciesla, 2011; Schutz, Paxton, & Wertheim, 2002). Given that
acebook contains images of a variety of potential comparison tar-

ets varying in relational closeness, it is important to examine
hether the frequency and direction of comparisons to specific tar-

et groups accounts for the relationship between Facebook usage
nd women’s body image concerns.

y Image 12 (2015) 82–88 83

The Present Study

Overall, the aims of this correlational study are to: (a) investigate
the relationship between the frequency of Facebook usage and body
image concerns among female university students; and (b) exam-
ine whether appearance comparisons in general or comparisons to
different target groups on Facebook account for this relationship.
Extrapolating from previous research (Tiggemann & Miller, 2010;
Tiggemann & Slater, 2013, 2014), we predict that greater Face-
book usage would be associated with higher levels of body image
concerns. Furthermore, based on research using traditional media
types (Tiggemann & McGill, 2004; Tiggemann & Slater, 2004),
appearance comparisons to women on Facebook are expected to
mediate, or account for, the relationship between Facebook usage
and body image concerns. Finally, the frequencies and directions
(i.e., whether the target was judged to be more [upward compar-
ison] or less [downward comparison] attractive than oneself) of
appearance comparisons to different target groups on Facebook are
expected to be differentially associated with women’s body image
concerns. Given that Facebook is generally used to interact with
one’s peers (Hew, 2011), and that having more “friends” on Face-
book is associated with greater appearance concerns (Tiggemann
& Slater, 2013), appearance comparisons to peers on Facebook are
expected to have the strongest association with young women’s
body image concerns.

Method

Participants

Participants (N = 227) were female first-year psychology stu-
dents at a large public university in eastern Australia. Power
analysis indicated that this sample size was sufficient to detect
small-to-medium effects with 80% power and alpha set at .05.
The mean age of participants was 19.13 years (SD = 2.21), and
their mean Body Mass Index (BMI: kg/m2) was 21.41 (SD = 3.93).
One-hundred-and-five participants (46.3%) identified as White, 95
(41.9%) identified as Asian, and 27 (11.8%) identified as “other.”

Measures

Facebook usage. Two questions were used to measure how
much time participants usually spend on Facebook: “On a typical
day, how often do you check Facebook (even if you are logged on
all day)?” (1 = not at all, 2 = once a day, 3 = every few hours, 4 = every
hour, 5 = every 30 minutes, 6 = every 10 minutes, 7 = every 2 minutes);
and “Overall, how long do you spend on Facebook on a typical
day?” (1 = 5 minutes or less, 2 = 15 minutes, 3 = 30 minutes, 4 = 1 hour,
5 = 2 hours, 6 = 4 hours, 7 = 6 hours, 8 = 8 hours, 9 = 10 hours or more).
Because these indicators were highly correlated, r = .57, p < .001,
responses on these two questions were standardized and then aver-
aged to form a single measure of Facebook usage.

Facebook appearance comparisons in general. Three state-
ments taken from the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale
(PACS; Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991) were modified to
measure participants’ tendency to compare their appearance to
others on Facebook. These three statements were chosen because
they refer to the specific situation or place where the comparisons
take place (e.g., “at parties or social events”) and could therefore be
modified to address comparisons through Facebook. Participants
were asked to indicate their level of agreement on a 5-point scale

(1 = definitely disagree, 5 = definitely agree) with each of the following
statements: “When using Facebook, I compare my physical appear-
ance to the physical appearance of others,” “When using Facebook,
I compare how I am dressed to how other people are dressed,” and

8 / Bod


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4 J. Fardouly, L.R. Vartanian

When using Facebook, I sometimes compare my figure to the fig-
res of other people.” Responses were averaged to form a combined
easure of Facebook appearance comparison tendency in general

Cronbach’s ˛ = .75).

Comparisons to specific target groups on Facebook. Partic-
pants reported on the frequency and direction of appearance
omparisons that they made to specific female target groups
n Facebook. In each case, participants were instructed that the
uestion “refers to people of the same sex as you.” For the
requency-of-comparison item, participants were asked on a 5-
oint scale, “When looking at photos of the following people
n Facebook, how often do you compare your body to theirs?”
1 = never, 5 = very often); for the direction-of-comparison item, par-
icipants were asked on a 6-point scale, “When comparing your
ody to each of the following people on Facebook, how do you
ate yourself?” (1 = much worse, 6 = much better). (Note that, for
he direction-of-comparison item, responses were not included for
hose participants who indicated that they never compared their
ody to a particular target group in the frequency-of-comparison

tem.) The target groups varied in relational closeness and included:
amily members, close friends (i.e., females you are friends with
n Facebook and regularly hang out with), Facebook friends (i.e.,
emales you are friends with on Facebook but do not regularly
ang out with), friends of friends (i.e., females you know but are
ot friends with on Facebook and you do not regularly hang
ut with), and celebrities (e.g., actors, musicians, models). Ratings
or Facebook friend and friend of friend were averaged to form

single measure labeled the distant peer target group for both
he frequency-of-comparison (Cronbach’s ˛ = .88) and direction-of-
omparison (Cronbach’s ˛ = .90) measures. Ratings for the family
ember, close friend, and celebrity target groups were consid-

red independently for both the frequency-of-comparison and
irection-of-comparison measures.

Body image concerns. Two subscales of the Eating Disorder
nventory (EDI; Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983) were used to
ssess individuals’ concerns with body weight and shape: the Body
issatisfaction subscale (BD) and the Drive for Thinness subscale

DFT). Using a 6-point response scale (1 = never, 6 = always), partici-
ants rated the extent to which nine statements related to body
issatisfaction (e.g., “I think my stomach is too big”) and seven
tatements related to drive for thinness (e.g., “I am terrified of gain-
ng weight”) described them. Internal consistency reliability in the
resent study was high for both the Body Dissatisfaction (Cron-
ach’s ˛ = .90) and Drive for Thinness (Cronbach’s ˛ = .91) subscales.

rocedure

This study was approved by the authors’ university ethics
ommittee. Participants were recruited via an online psychology
articipant pool. Only female students with a Facebook account
ere eligible to sign up for this study, which was described as

n online study examining the use of social networking websites.
hen participants signed up for the study, they were sent an email
ith a link to the online survey that included the aforementioned
easures as well as six filler questionnaires related to the self

hat were not part of the current investigation. Participants were
lso asked if they had a Facebook account (all participants indi-
ated that they did have a Facebook account), and were asked to
eport their age, ethnicity, and height and weight (used to cal-

ulate BMI). Participants completed the online questionnaires in
heir natural environment (e.g., at home or the library). Participants
ere debriefed in person and given introductory psychology course

redit for their participation.

y Image 12 (2015) 82–88

Data Analysis

Before conducting any analyses, missing data points were
replaced by series means for the body dissatisfaction and drive
for thinness measures (no participant missed more than two ques-
tions on each measure). Descriptive statistics were then calculated
for the two Facebook usage questions before they were combined
to form a single item. We next examined the correlations between
Facebook usage and body image concerns (body dissatisfaction and
drive for thinness) to test the hypothesis that greater Facebook
usage would be associated with higher body image concerns, and
conducted a mediation analysis using the bootstrapping procedure
described by Preacher and Hayes (2008) to test whether the rela-
tionship between Facebook usage and body dissatisfaction and/or
drive for thinness was accounted for by Facebook appearance
comparisons. This bootstrapping procedure generates confidence
intervals for the indirect effect of the predictor variable on the
criterion variable through the mediating variable by repeatedly
sampling from the data set (in this case, 5000 bootstrap resam-
ples) to create an approximation of the sampling distribution of the
indirect effect. Note that a significant direct relationship between
the predictor variable on the criterion variable is not necessary for
mediation (Hayes, 2009).

We next conducted repeated measures analyses of variance
(ANOVAs) to test whether the frequency and direction of appear-
ance comparisons varied by target group (family members, close
friends, distant peers, celebrities). For each target group, corre-
lations were also calculated between appearance comparison
frequency/direction and both Facebook usage and body image con-
cerns (body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness). Finally, if the
frequency/direction of appearance comparisons to any target group
was significantly correlated with both Facebook usage and either
of the two measures of body image concerns, mediation anal-
yses were conducted to test whether the relationship between
Facebook usage and body image concerns was mediated by the fre-
quency/direction of appearance comparisons to that specific target
group on Facebook. If appearance comparison frequency/direction
to more than one target group was correlated with both Facebook
usage and either of the two measures of body image concerns, mul-
tiple mediation analysis was also conducted in order to compare the
strength of the indirect effects.

Results

Preliminary Analyses

The pattern of results did not vary for participants with reported
Caucasian or Asian ethnicity. Therefore, all analysis was conducted
on the group as a whole. Participants’ modal frequency of check-
ing Facebook on a typical day was “every few hours” (M = 3.50,
SD = 1.08) and the modal amount of time spent on Facebook on a
typical day was “2 hours” (M = 4.40, SD = 1.47). As predicted, there
was a significant positive correlation between the combined Face-
book usage measure and body dissatisfaction, r = .14, p = .03, and
between the combined Facebook usage measure and drive for thin-
ness, r = .17, p = .01.

Mediation through General Facebook Comparisons

Both Facebook usage and the two body image concerns
measures (body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness) were sig-

nificantly and positively correlated with Facebook appearance
comparisons in general (see Table 1). Mediation analysis showed
that Facebook appearance comparisons in general mediated the
relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns

J. Fardouly, L.R. Vartanian / Body Image 12 (2015) 82–88 85

Table 1
Correlations between Facebook usage, body image concerns, appearance comparisons, and the frequencies and directions of appearance comparisons to specific target groups.

Frequency of comparison Direction of comparison

Facebook appearance
comparisons in general

Family Close friends Distant peers Celebrities Family Close friends Distant peers Celebrities

Facebook usage .15* −.01 .14* .19** .11 −.05 −.06 −.22** −.17*
Body dissatisfaction .25** .16* .30** .31** .23** −.47** −.53** −.59** −.49**
Drive for thinness .35** .31** .46** .43** .32** −.30** −.37** −.44** −.34**
* p < .05.

** p < .01.

Facebook Usage Body Image Concerns
.11 (.14*)

.15* .23***

Facebook Appearance
Comparisons In

General

.12 (.17*)

.15* .33***

Fig. 1. Mediational model for Facebook appearance comparison tendency in gen-
eral. All numbers represent standardized beta weights. Numbers in parentheses
r
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Facebook Usage Body Image Concerns

.10 (.17*)

.14* .28***

Frequency of
Comparisons to
Close Friends

.14* .44***

.10 (.14*)

Facebook Usage Body Image Concerns
.08 (.16*)

.19** .30***

.19** .42***

.08 (.13*)

Frequency of
Comparisons to

Distant Peers

Fig. 2. Mediational models for the frequency of appearance comparisons to (a) close
friends and (b) distant peers on Facebook. All numbers represent standardized beta
weights. Numbers in parentheses represent the direct, unmediated effects. Numbers

epresent the direct, unmediated effects. Numbers above the arrows represent the
oefficients for body dissatisfaction, and numbers below the arrows (in italics) rep-
esent the coefficients for drive for thinness. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001.

see Fig. 1), as the 95% confidence interval (CI) did not include zero
body dissatisfaction: B = 0.38, SE = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.11, 0.85; drive
or thinness: B = 0.50, SE = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.15, 1.00).

ediation through Facebook Comparisons to Specific
arget Groups

As seen in Table 2, participants reported comparing their
ppearance most often to their distant peers on Facebook, just as
requently to close friends and celebrities, and significantly less fre-
uently to female family members. Furthermore, participants rated
heir body most negatively when comparing to female celebri-
ies, followed by close friends and distant peers (which did not
iffer from one another), and least negatively when comparing
o female family members. Because the direction-of-comparison
tem required participants to rate their bodies as either better or

orse than each target group (i.e., there was no midpoint or “same”
ption) any mean above 3.5 represented downward comparisons
nd any mean below 3.5 represented upward comparisons. In all
ases, except for comparisons to family members, participants on
verage rated their bodies as worse than the target group (i.e., made
pward comparisons).

Comparison frequencies. As seen in Table 1, the frequencies
f comparisons to close friends and distant peers were corre-
ated with both Facebook usage and the two body image concerns

easures. Therefore, the frequencies of comparisons to these tar-
et groups were tested as potential mediators. Mediation analysis
evealed that the frequency of comparisons to close friends (body
issatisfaction: B = 0.44, SE = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.98; drive for
hinness: B = 0.63, SE = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.08, 1.29) mediated the rela-
ionship between Facebook usage and body image concerns (see
ig. 2a). In addition, the frequency of comparisons to distant peers
body dissatisfaction: B = 0.64, SE = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.22, 1.28; drive

or thinness: B = 0.82, SE = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.29, 1.49) also mediated
he relationship between Facebook usage and body image con-
erns (see Fig. 2b). Multiple mediation analysis revealed that there
as no difference in the strength of the indirect effect for close

above the arrows represent the coefficients for body dissatisfaction, and numbers
below the arrows (in italics) represent the coefficients for drive for thinness. * p < .05.
** p < .01. *** p < .001.

friends or distant peers (body dissatisfaction: B = −0.14, SE = 0.35,
95% CI = −0.93, 0.51; drive for thinness: B = 0.12, SE = 0.32, 95%
CI = −0.45, 0.90).

Comparison directions. As seen in Table 1, the directions of
comparisons to distant peers and celebrities were significantly
correlated with both Facebook usage and the two body image con-
cerns measures, and therefore these targets groups were tested as
potential mediators. Mediation analysis revealed that the direc-
tion of comparisons to celebrities (body dissatisfaction: B = 0.93,
SE = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.17, 1.80; drive for thinness: B = 0.58, SE = 0.29,
95% CI = 0.13, 1.21) mediated the relationship between Facebook
usage and body image concerns (see Fig. 3a). In addition, the direc-
tion of comparisons to distant peers (body dissatisfaction: B = 1.40,
SE = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.55, 2.49; drive for thinness: B = 0.90, SE = 0.34,
95% CI = 0.32, 1.70) also mediated the relationship between Face-
book usage and body image concerns (see Fig. 3b). Multiple
mediation analysis indicated that the indirect effect of distant

peers was stronger than the indirect effect of celebrities for both
measures of body image concerns (body dissatisfaction: B = 1.00,
SE = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.22, 2.24; drive for thinness: B = 0.72, SE = 0.44,
95% CI = 0.05, 1.77). Furthermore, the indirect effect of Facebook

86 J. Fardouly, L.R. Vartanian / Body Image 12 (2015) 82–88

Table 2
Mean (SD) ratings of the frequencies and directions of appearance comparisons to specific target groups on Facebook.

Family Close friends Distant peers Celebrities

Comparison frequencies 2.11 (1.09)a 2.88 (1.16)b 2.99 (1.13)c 2.85 (1.35)b

Comparison directions 3.52 (1.00)a 3.16 (1.01)b 3.01 (0.97)b 2.12 (1.06)c

Note: Comparison frequency ratings ranged from 1 = never to 5 = very often, and comparis
row with different superscripts are significantly different at p < .05.

a

b

Facebook Usage Body Image Concerns

.09 (.15)

-.17 * -.49***

Direction of
Comparisons to

Celebrities

-.17 * -.32***

.02 (.10)

Facebook Usage Body Image Concerns
.10 (.19**)

-.22 ** -.58***

-.22 ** -.42***

.04 (.17*)

Direction of
Comparisons to

Distant Peers

Fig. 3. Mediational models for the direction of appearance comparisons to (a)
celebrities and (b) distant peers on Facebook. All numbers represent standardized
beta weights. Numbers in parentheses represent the direct, unmediated effects.
N
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umbers above the arrows represent the coefficients for body dissatisfaction, and
umbers below the arrows (in italics) represent the coefficients for drive for thin-
ess. ∗ p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001.

sage on drive for thinness through comparisons to celebrities was
o longer significant (B = 0.24, SE = 0.20, 95% CI = −0.02, 0.70).

Discussion

Consistent with previous research on female high school stu-
ents (Tiggemann & Miller, 2010; Tiggemann & Slater, 2013),
requency of Facebook usage showed a small-to-moderate positive
ssociation with body image concerns (in terms of both body dis-
atisfaction and drive for thinness) in female university students.
herefore, the present study extends previous literature by show-
ng that the association between the frequency of Facebook usage
nd female body image concerns is evident in both adolescence
nd early adulthood. Importantly, the present study further showed
hat the relationship between Facebook usage and body image con-
erns was mediated by appearance comparisons in general. These
ndings are consistent with sociocultural models of eating disor-
ers (Keery et al., 2004; van den Berg et al., 2002), and several
revious studies on more traditional forms of media (Tiggemann &
cGill, 2004; Tiggemann & Slater, 2004), and suggest that women
ho spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about

heir body because they compare their appearance to others more

ften on Facebook.

Given that Facebook users are presented with a wide range
f potential comparison targets, we also examined whether com-
arison frequency and direction varied by target groups, and

on direction ratings ranged from 1 = much worse to 6 = much better. Means within a

whether comparisons to these specific target groups mediated the
relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.
Participants r

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