Strategic Appli In Project Management Activity 11 Assume that you have the following decision-making options: (1) make the decision on your own with availa

Strategic Appli In Project Management

 

Activity 11

Assume that you have the following decision-making options: (1) make the decision on your own with available information, (2) consult others before making a decision, and (3) call a meeting and reach a consensus, seeking to arrive at a final decision everyone can agree on. Which approach would you use to make each of the following decisions and why?

  1. You are the project leader for Casino Night on campus, a charitable event organized by your group to raise money for the homeless. The event was a big success, garnering a net profit of $3,500. Before the event your team researched nearby organizations that support the homeless and to whom the money could be given. You narrowed the choices to the “Chunk of Coal House” and “St. Mary’s Soup Kitchen.” Eventually your group decided that the funds be given to Chunk of Coal. You are about to write a check to its director when you read in the local newspaper that the Chunk of Coal House has terminated operations. What should you do with the money?
  2. You are a golf course designer hired by Trysting Tree Golf Club to renovate their golf course. You have worked closely with the board of directors of the club to develop a new layout that is both challenging and aesthetically pleasing. Everyone is excited about the changes. The project is nearly 75 percent complete when you encounter problems on the 13th hole. The 13th hole at Trysting Tree is a 125-yard par three in which golfers have to hit their tee shots over a lake to a modulated green. During the construction of the new tee box, workers discovered that an underground spring runs beneath the box to the lake. You inspected the site and agreed with the construction supervisor that this could create serious problems, especially during the rainy winter months. After surveying the area, you believe the only viable option would be to extend the hole to 170 yards and create elevated tees on the adjacent hillside.
  3. You are the leader of a new product development project. Your team has worked hard on developing a third-generation product that incorporates new technology and meets customer demands. The project is roughly 50 percent complete. You have just received a report from the marketing department detailing a similar product that is about to be released by a competitor. The product appears to utilize radical new design principles that expand the functionality of the product. This poses a serious threat to the success of your project. Top management is considering canceling your project and starting over again. They want you to make a recommendation.

Chapter Eleven

Managing Project Teams

11–1

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11–2

Where We Are Now

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11–2

Project Management 6e.

Learning Objectives

Identify key characteristics of a high-performance project team

Distinguish the different stages of team development

Understand the impact situational factors have on project team development

Identify strategies for developing a high-performance project team

Distinguish functional conflict from dysfunctional conflict and describe strategies for encouraging functional conflict and discouraging dysfunctional conflict

Understand the challenges of managing virtual project teams

Recognize the different pitfalls that can occur in a project team

11–3

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Chapter Outline

11.1 The Five-Stage Team Development Model

11.2 Situational Factors Affecting Team

Development

11.3 Building High-Performance Project Teams

11.4 Managing Virtual Project Teams

11.5 Project Team Pitfalls

11–4

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11–5

High-Performing Teams

Synergy

1 + 1 + 1 = 10 (positive synergy)

1 + 1 + 1 = 2 (negative synergy)

Characteristics of High-performing Teams

Share a sense of common purpose

Make effective use of individual talents and expertise

Have balanced and shared roles

Maintain a problem solving focus

Accept differences of opinion and expression

Encourage risk taking and creativity

Set high personal performance standards

Identify with the team

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11–5

Project Management 6e.

11–6

The Five-Stage Team Development Model

FIGURE 11.1

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11–6

Project Management 6e.

11–7

Conditions Favoring Development of
High Performance Project Teams

Ten or fewer team members

Voluntary team membership

Continuous service on the team

Full-time assignment to the team

An organization culture of cooperation and trust

Members report solely to the project manager

All relevant functional areas are represented on the team

The project involves a compelling objective

Members are in close communication with each other

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11–7

Project Management 6e.

11–8

The Punctuated Equilibrium Model
of Group Development

FIGURE 11.2

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11–8

Project Management 6e.

11–9

Creating a High-Performance Project Team

FIGURE 11.3

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11–9

Project Management 6e.

11–10

Building High-Performance Project Teams

Recruiting Project Members

Factors affecting recruiting

Importance of the project

Management structure used to complete the project

How to recruit?

Ask for volunteers

Who to recruit?

Problem-solving ability

Availability

Technological expertise

Credibility

Political connections

Ambition, initiative, and energy

Familiarity

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11–10

Project Management 6e.

11–11

Project Team Meetings

Conducting Project Meetings

Establishing Ground Rules

Planning Decisions

Tracking Decisions

Managing Change Decisions

Relationship Decisions

Establishing Team Norms

Managing
Subsequent Meetings

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11–11

Project Management 6e.

Norms of High-performance Teams

Confidentiality is maintained; no information is shared outside the team unless all agree to it.

It is acceptable to be in trouble, but it is not acceptable to surprise others. Tell others immediately when deadlines or milestones will not be reached.

There is zero tolerance for bulling a way through a problem or an issue.

Agree to disagree, but when a decision has been made, regardless of personal feelings, move forward.

Respect outsiders, and do not flaunt one’s position on the project team.

Hard work does not get in the way of having fun.

11–12

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Project Management 6e.

11–12

11–13

Establishing a Team Identity

Effective Use
of Meetings

Co-location of
team members

Creation of project
team name

Team rituals

Get the team to do

something together

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11–13

Project Management 6e.

11–14

Requirements for an Effective Project Vision

FIGURE 11.4

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11–14

Project Management 6e.

11–15

Managing Project Reward Systems

Group Rewards

Who gets what as an individual reward?

How to make the reward have lasting significance?

How to recognize individual performance?

Letters of commendation

Public recognition for outstanding work

Desirable job assignments

Increased personal flexibility

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11–15

Project Management 6e.

11–16

Orchestrating the Decision-Making Process

Problem Identification

Generating Alternatives

Reaching a Decision

Follow-up

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11–16

Project Management 6e.

11–17

Managing Conflict within the Project Team

Encouraging Functional Conflict

Encourage dissent by asking tough questions

Bring in people with different points of view

Designate someone to be a devil’s advocate

Ask the team to consider an unthinkable alternative

Managing Dysfunctional Conflict

Mediate the conflict

Arbitrate the conflict

Control the conflict

Accept the conflict

Eliminate the conflict

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11–17

Project Management 6e.

11–18

Sources of Conflict over the Project Life Cycle

FIGURE 11.5

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11–18

Project Management 6e.

11–19

Rejuvenating the Project Team

Informal Techniques

Institute new rituals

Take an off-site break as a team from the project

View an inspiration message or movie

Have the project sponsor give a pep talk

Formal Techniques

Hold a team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance

Engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team

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11–19

Project Management 6e.

11–20

Managing Virtual Project Teams

Challenges:

Developing trust

Exchange of social information

Set clear roles for each team member

Developing effective patterns of communication

Don’t let team members vanish

Establish a code of conduct to avoid delays

Establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts

Use electronic video technology to verify work

Share the pain

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11–20

Project Management 6e.

11–21

24-Hour Global Clock

FIGURE 11.6

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11–21

Project Management 6e.

11–22

Project Team Pitfalls

Groupthink

Bureaucratic
Bypass Syndrome

Team Spirit Becomes
Team Infatuation

Going Native

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11–22

Project Management 6e.

11–23

Key Terms

Brainstorming

Dysfunctional conflict

Functional conflict

Groupthink

Nominal group technique (NGT)

Positive synergy

Project kickoff meeting

Project vision

Team building

Team rituals

Virtual project team

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11–23

Project Management 6e.

11–24

Celebration Task Force Agenda

FIGURE C11.1

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11–24

Project Management 6e.

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