Week 2 ProjectAssignment Overdue – January 25 at 12:59 AM
Using the South University Online Library, research about virtual projects. Based on your research, answer the following questions:
- Which virtual project problems are unique to the phenomenon of being dispersed and which are common project problems in any project?
- Which virtual problems are the most serious for virtual projects? Why? Which virtual problems might be fatal for virtual projects? Why?
- What are some potential solutions to virtual team problems? Which solutions would apply to regular project teams also?
- Provide your answers in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style.
- Support your responses with examples and research.
Evolution of Project Management
By the time the Industrial Revolution was in full swing, civilized society found itself with an enormous, unprecedented production capacity due to an explosion of
technological innovation. Factories and mills and other centers of production were springing up faster than people could determine how to organize and run them well.
Even the concept of management as we know it today had to be invented, as did the modern form of production organizations.
Prior to industrial times, traditional forms of organization were churches, the military, monarchies, governments, and the family. These were these kinds of organizations
people knew about or knew how to run. It quickly became apparent; none would serve as the right model for running an industry. Of the several scholars who worked on
this problem, Max Weber’s work is most prominent.
Weber suggested that organizations need to have rules and procedures, specialization and division of labor, de�ned hierarchy, selection of workers based on competency,
and authority vested in the of�ce rather than the of�ce-holder.
Later, it became clear that this theory of organizing would work well when managing some projects but would not work for others. Some projects are so large they
encompass the entire organization. At the other extreme, some projects are so small they can easily �t into one of the organization’s functional divisions.
This course primarily talks about projects consisting of teams made up of people of disparate competencies drawn from different functional departments. For example, a
new product development team might involve people from legal, marketing, and sales.
When people are drawn from different functional departments, at least one of Weber’s rules must be broken or compromised. The new product team leader (the project
manager) must vie with the functional managers of the team for in�uence over the team. This type of structure is called a matrix structure.
The problem is many project managers lack clear authority or share it with functional managers in matrix structures. Regardless of organizational choices, the project
manager’s power is backed by the legitimacy of the organization itself, if not the actual chain of command. Subordinates follow the legitimacy of the position. It doesn’t
really matter who’s the boss; the boss represents the organization.
Paradoxically, however, and especially when the chain of command does not allow the project manager to have formal authority, personal in�uence is the main skill.
Personal in�uence does not always necessitate a charismatic leader, but it does at least require a person who understands how to negotiate and resolve con�icts. The
emerging picture is of a leader who �nds a humble balance between authority, personality, human skill, and technical skill.
Just as the leader of a larger enterprise would have to do, the manager of any sizeable project must plan the staf�ng of the project; develop organization charts and
position descriptions; clearly de�ne the roles and responsibilities of each team member; ensure proper training; make use of appropriate recognition and reward
schemes; comply with Human Resource Management (HRM), Equal Employment Opportunities (EEO), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and
other laws and rules.
Sometimes, the hardest leadership challenge doesn’t directly involve the team members. Often, the project manager must negotiate with functional or other project
managers for the right people and the right duration of time to suit the project’s schedule. Because con�icts are inevitable, the manager must have good con�ict
Sometimes, teams will be virtual. At times, the team members must work on the project site, and sometimes working virtually away from the physical site. In all cases, the
project manager must remain aware of how important it is for the team members to realize they may have no administrative “home” to return to when the project is over.
Some of these challenges are made unavoidable by the organizational choices inferred earlier, which makes this topic and project organization so important to study
View a Pdf Transcript of Webers’ organization of the future (media/week2/SU_MGT3035_W2_L2_G1.pdf?